|Drinking water purification|
of aqueous solutions containing
dissolved and emulsified organic compounds
of zinc, lead, copper, cadmium and mercury
from waste water
of arsenic from wash solutions of the
sulphuric acid production
There are several methods for the removal of water hardness forming calcium and magnesium salts from drinking and industrial used water. A frequently used method for water softening is the ion exchange.
filled with granular cation exchanger (Na+-charged) are applied
in ion exchange processes. While the water runs through the ion exchanger
bed sodium ions are exchanged against hardness forming calcium and magnesium
ions. The used flow rate differs between 5 and 30 m/h. If the ion exchanger
is charged with calcium and magnesium ions, it is regenerated with 5 -10
% solution of common salt (sodium chloride). This procedure has some considerable
If SGS-polymers are used for ion exchanging processes due to their high exchange rate
In this procedure
sodium sulphate is used for the regeneration of the charged ion exchanger.
Slightly soluble sulphates of hardness forming cations are precipitated
during the regeneration. The deposition happens in a separate precipitator
and not in the filter element because throughputs of 2000 l/h can be realised.
A clear solution of sodium sulphate is received in the precipitator within
20 to 30 min. This solution can be re-used in the regeneration process.
Pattern of structure and function of a device for waste-free water softening
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Steffen Bock Weiland and Roland Kühne